Time series analysis
General term for trending findings over a time period, usually in a graphical format, which can be used to make predicted forecasts for the future.
A statistical method of estimating the expected duration of time until an event occurs.
Example: A human beings expected lifespan being assessed using inputs such as age, gender, location and wealth.
Capture / Recapture method
A method of estimating observation sizes by targeting several small specific areas to take a count and then making assumptions about the rest of the population based on the findings.
Example: For measuring the number of fish in a lake (often populations of a type of species).